Puerto Rico is an island full of interesting contrasts and surprises. It is the smallest and most easterly of the Greater Antilles and is a Commonwealth and territory of the USA. Puerto Rico is a small archipelago of islands and cays such as Vieques, Culebra, Mona, Monito, Desecheo, and Caja de Muertos.
Its geographical location and geological history has had a profound influence on the rich diversity of its flora and fauna. Of Puerto Rico’s 354 recorded bird species, approximately 133 are known to breed on the island and include an impressive list of 17 endemic species: Adelaide's Warbler, Elfin-woods Warbler, Green Mango, Puerto Rican Bullfinch, Puerto Rican Emerald, Puerto Rican Flycatcher, Puerto Rican Lizard Cuckoo, Puerto Rican Nightjar, Puerto Rican Oriole, Puerto Rican Parrot (Amazon), Puerto Rican Screech-Owl, Puerto Rican Spindalis, Puerto Rican Tanager, Puerto Rican Tody, Puerto Rican Vireo, Puerto Rican Woodpecker, and Yellow-shouldered Blackbird.
There are also some range-restricted species such as Antillean Mango, Lesser Antillean Pewee, and Antillean Euphonia.
Waterbirds are an important component of the local bird life representing more than 35% of the species recorded: 45 species are known to breed on the island! Puerto Rico has diverse wetlands, mangrove systems, freshwater swamps, and salt flats. Major wetland areas include Caño Tiburones, Laguna Tortuguero, Laguna Cartagena, San Juan and Jobos bays estuaries and Cabo Rojo saltflats.